Opini Berita Politik Terkini Indonesia & Referensi Situs Pemilu 2014

persenjataan rusia vs amerika

Keseimbangan Militer Dunia: Kekuatan Amerika vs. Rusia vs. Cina part 1

Keseimbangan Tatanan Dunia Baru: Polarisasi Militer Kekuatan Amerika vs. Rusia vs. China

Dunia sekali lagi memasuki masa keseimbangan yang baru. Silih berganti: kekuatan Inggris Raya pasca Revolusi Industri yang pudar digantikan oleh bekas koloninya Amerika Serikat sendirian. Tak berapa lama Uni Soviet kemudian menunjukkan tajinya ‘menemani’ Amerika dalam persaingan ketat setelah berduaan merebut kemenangan atas Jerman. Namun, Uni Soviet pun roboh setelah tak kuat menanggung beban mesin ekonomi komunismenya yang rongsok namun penuh ilusi. Amerika Serikat pun sendirian lagi.

Sekarang fase pun tampak mulai berganti sekali lagi. China secara natural menjadi raksasa ekonomi yang mengalahkan Jerman bahkan Jepang. Russia yang semula sempat melunak sepertinya tidak ingin ketinggalan momen ‘mengejar’ Amerika Serikat dengan bermain di antara kepesatan China dan kemapanan Amerika Serikat.

Satu per satu berusaha akan dibahas bagaimana sih kira-kira ekuilibrium kekuatan akan berhenti baik dari dimensi militer, ekonomi, dan politik. Semoga ini bisa membantu kita memahami konteks strategi politik Indonesia di kancah dunia untuk mengambil keuntungan dari percaturan negara-negara adidaya ini.

Militer: Amerika vs. Rusia vs. Cina

Dari sisi militer kekuatan konvensional Amerika Serikat secara umum masih dikatakan terlalu kuat untuk ditandingi oleh Rusia dan Cina (baca: kekuatan nuklir tidak dibahas di sini karena 1) ketiganya berkemampuan nuklir 2) kemungkinan penggunaan nuklir dalam perang akan amat kecil, 3) sekalipun digunakan konsekuensinya fatal untuk seluruh seluruh pelaku). Indikator paling utama kekuatan militer adalah dari sisi pendanaan militer seperti tercantum pada tabel di bawah. Besaran dana yang dikeluarkan untuk militer Amerika Serikat sekitar 2x Cina dan 9x Rusia. Pengeluaran sebesar itu belum melihat faktor efisiensi dan efektifitas penggunaan dana tersebut. Sebuah artikel menengarai militer AS memiliki tingkat efisiensi 2-3x Cina dan Rusia. Contoh kasarnya, kalau AS dengan biaya US$ 1 Milyar bisa membangun sebuah pesawat jet super canggih, Cina dan Rusia membutuhkan hingga US$ 3 Milyar untuk membangun teknologi yang sama.

Pengeluaran Militer Berbagai Negara 2011

Negara

GDP Rank – GDP % GDP Rank – % GDP Pengeluaran Militer
WORLD $70,155,374,950,000 $2,157,172,000,000
United States $14,120,000,000,000 2 5.20% 17 $741,200,000,000
China $8,818,000,000,000 3 4.30% 23 $380,000,000,000
India $3,680,000,000,000 5 2.50% 62 $92,000,000,000
Russia $2,116,000,000,000 8 3.90% 27 $82,500,000,000
Saudi Arabia $590,900,000,000 23 10.00% 3 $59,090,000,000
France $2,094,000,000,000 9 2.60% 57 $54,444,000,000
United Kingdom $2,123,000,000,000 7 2.40% 63 $50,952,000,000
Turkey $879,900,000,000 17 5.30% 16 $46,634,700,000
Germany $2,815,000,000,000 6 1.50% 102 $42,225,000,000
Korea, South $1,362,000,000,000 13 2.70% 53 $36,774,000,000
Brazil $2,010,000,000,000 10 1.70% 89 $34,170,000,000
Japan $4,149,000,000,000 4 0.80% 150 $33,192,000,000
Italy $1,737,000,000,000 11 1.80% 86 $31,266,000,000
Indonesia $960,200,000,000 16 3.00% 47 $28,806,000,000
Iran $825,900,000,000 19 2.50% 60 $20,647,500,000
Spain $1,359,000,000,000 14 1.20% 122 $16,308,000,000
Taiwan $734,300,000,000 20 2.20% 68 $16,154,600,000
Israel $206,900,000,000 51 7.30% 6 $15,103,700,000
Greece $332,900,000,000 35 4.30% 24 $14,314,700,000
Canada $1,277,000,000,000 15 1.10% 127 $14,047,000,000
Colombia $407,500,000,000 29 3.40% 35 $13,855,000,000
Pakistan $432,900,000,000 28 3.00% 46 $12,987,000,000
Singapore $251,200,000,000 45 4.90% 18 $12,308,800,000
Poland $688,300,000,000 21 1.70% 88 $11,769,930,000
Netherlands $659,100,000,000 22 1.60% 95 $10,545,600,000
Qatar $100,800,000,000 67 10.00% 2 $10,080,000,000
Korea, North $40,000,000,000 96 0.00% $10,000,000,000
Thailand $539,300,000,000 25 1.80% 85 $9,707,400,000
Iraq $109,900,000,000 65 8.60% 4 $9,451,400,000
South Africa $504,600,000,000 26 1.70% 93 $8,578,200,000
Austria $321,600,000,000 37 2.60% 54 $8,361,600,000
Oman $72,780,000,000 80 11.40% 1 $8,296,920,000
Algeria $241,000,000,000 48 3.30% 38 $7,953,000,000
Malaysia $383,000,000,000 31 2.00% 70 $7,774,900,000
Mexico $1,463,000,000,000 12 0.50% 164 $7,315,000,000
Kuwait $137,700,000,000 59 5.30% 15 $7,298,100,000
Morocco $145,400,000,000 58 5.00% 17 $7,270,000,000
Australia $848,400,000,000 18 0.80% 151 $6,787,200,000
Chile $243,200,000,000 47 2.70% 52 $6,566,400,000
Vietnam $256,500,000,000 42 2.50% 61 $6,412,500,000
United Arab Emirate $191,900,000,000 53 3.10% 42 $5,948,900,000
Syria $100,800,000,000 68 5.90% 12 $5,947,200,000
Portugal $240,900,000,000 50 2.30% 65 $5,540,700,000
Nigeria $341,100,000,000 33 1.50% 101 $5,116,500,000
Norway $268,300,000,000 41 1.90% 80 $5,097,700,000
Sweden $335,100,000,000 34 1.50% 99 $5,026,500,000
Belgium $383,000,000,000 30 1.30% 120 $4,979,000,000
Romania $254,400,000,000 43 1.90% 77 $4,833,600,000
Argentina $568,200,000,000 24 0.80% 147 $4,545,600,000
Cuba $110,800,000,000 63 3.80% 29 $4,210,400,000
Venezuela $348,800,000,000 32 1.20% 123 $4,185,600,000
Ukraine $289,300,000,000 40 1.40% 110 $4,050,200,000
Yemen $57,950,000,000 84 6.60% 7 $3,824,700,000
Angola $106,200,000,000 66 3.60% 34 $3,823,200,000
Peru $251,000,000,000 46 1.50% 100 $3,765,000,000
Ecuador $110,400,000,000 64 3.40% 37 $3,753,600,000
Czech Republic $253,100,000,000 44 1.50% 104 $3,695,260,000
Finland $178,900,000,000 56 2.00% 75 $3,578,000,000
Libya $84,920,000,000 74 3.90% 26 $3,311,880,000
Hungary $185,700,000,000 54 1.80% 87 $3,249,750,000
Bangladesh $241,000,000,000 49 1.30% 113 $3,133,000,000
Switzerland $313,300,000,000 38 1.00% 130 $3,133,000,000
Philippines $324,300,000,000 36 0.90% 144 $2,918,700,000
Egypt $468,700,000,000 27 0.60% 161 $2,812,200,000
Sudan $92,520,000,000 71 3.00% 44 $2,775,600,000
Jordan $32,260,000,000 105 8.60% 5 $2,774,360,000
Denmark $197,500,000,000 52 1.30% 115 $2,567,500,000
Sri Lanka $96,470,000,000 69 2.60% 55 $2,508,220,000
Bulgaria $90,480,000,000 72 2.60% 58 $2,352,480,000
Slovakia $114,900,000,000 62 1.90% 82 $2,148,630,000
Serbia $78,050,000,000 78 0.00% IISS $2,000,000,000
Croatia $78,460,000,000 76 2.40% 64 $1,875,194,000
Kenya $62,480,000,000 83 2.80% 51 $1,749,440,000
Belarus $120,700,000,000 60 1.40% 105 $1,689,800,000
Lebanon $53,900,000,000 89 3.10% 41 $1,670,900,000
Kazakhstan $182,000,000,000 55 0.90% 145 $1,638,000,000
Uzbekistan $78,370,000,000 77 2.00% 73 $1,567,400,000
Ireland $172,500,000,000 57 0.90% 140 $1,552,500,000
Equatorial Guinea $23,820,000,000 113 6.30% 9 $1,500,660,000
Bosnia and Herzego $29,780,000,000 106 4.50% 21 $1,340,100,000
Tunisia $95,600,000,000 70 1.40% 109 $1,338,400,000
Bahrain $28,270,000,000 108 4.50% 20 $1,272,150,000
Burma $57,410,000,000 86 2.10% 69 $1,205,610,000
New Zealand $115,100,000,000 61 1.00% 133 $1,151,000,000
Macedonia $18,890,000,000 125 6.00% 10 $1,133,400,000
Turkmenistan $32,520,000,000 102 3.40% 36 $1,105,680,000
Armenia $16,250,000,000 132 6.50% 8 $1,056,250,000
Slovenia $55,410,000,000 87 1.70% 92 $941,970,000
Brunei $19,390,000,000 124 4.50% 22 $872,550,000
Ethiopia $77,360,000,000 79 0.00% IISS $870,000,000
Cyprus $22,750,000,000 117 3.80% 32 $864,500,000
Uganda $38,120,000,000 98 2.20% 67 $838,640,000
Botswana $25,380,000,000 112 3.30% 39 $837,540,000
Cambodia $27,880,000,000 109 3.00% 48 $836,400,000
Dominican Republic $80,310,000,000 75 0.90% 138 $722,790,000
Uruguay $43,980,000,000 92 1.60% 96 $703,680,000
Lithuania $55,170,000,000 88 1.20% 125 $662,040,000
Ghana $35,990,000,000 99 1.70% 91 $611,830,000
Azerbaijan $85,650,000,000 73 0.70% 153 $599,550,000
Bolivia $45,540,000,000 91 1.30% 119 $592,020,000
Cameroon $42,790,000,000 94 1.30% 114 $556,270,000
Congo, Democratic $21,750,000,000 119 2.50% 59 $543,750,000
Cote d'Ivoire $35,940,000,000 100 1.50% 98 $539,100,000
Nepal $33,610,000,000 101 1.60% 94 $537,760,000
Tajikistan $13,650,000,000 138 3.90% 28 $532,350,000
Afghanistan $26,980,000,000 110 1.90% 76 $512,620,000
Namibia $13,850,000,000 136 3.70% 33 $512,450,000
Panama $40,760,000,000 95 1.00% 132 $407,600,000
Georgia $20,850,000,000 121 1.90% 78 $396,150,000
Latvia $32,310,000,000 104 1.20% 126 $387,720,000
Luxembourg $39,080,000,000 97 0.90% 141 $351,720,000
Mauritania $6,381,000,000 153 5.50% 14 $350,955,000
Albania $22,880,000,000 116 1.50% 103 $340,912,000
Zambia $18,440,000,000 128 1.80% 84 $331,920,000
Rwanda $11,010,000,000 145 2.90% 49 $319,290,000
Senegal $22,620,000,000 118 1.40% 111 $316,680,000
Chad $17,930,000,000 129 1.70% 90 $304,810,000
Mali $15,680,000,000 133 1.90% 79 $297,920,000
Costa Rica $48,830,000,000 90 0.60% 156 $292,980,000
Paraguay $28,630,000,000 107 1.00% 131 $286,300,000
Estonia $23,710,000,000 115 1.20% 124 $284,520,000
Swaziland $5,849,000,000 155 4.70% 19 $274,903,000
Guatemala $67,780,000,000 82 0.40% 166 $271,120,000
Burkina Faso $18,790,000,000 126 1.20% 121 $225,480,000
Madagascar $20,120,000,000 123 1.00% 134 $201,200,000
Honduras $32,460,000,000 103 0.60% 157 $194,760,000
Papua New Guinea $13,850,000,000 137 1.40% 108 $193,900,000
Burundi $3,241,000,000 172 5.90% 11 $191,219,000
Gabon $21,070,000,000 120 0.90% 146 $189,630,000
Kyrgyzstan $12,090,000,000 143 1.40% 107 $169,260,000
Malawi $12,500,000,000 141 1.30% 118 $162,500,000
Mozambique $20,190,000,000 122 0.80% 149 $161,520,000
Zimbabwe $4,161,000,000 166 3.80% 30 $158,118,000
Jamaica $23,760,000,000 114 0.60% 160 $142,560,000
Congo, Republic of t $15,560,000,000 134 0.90% 137 $140,040,000
Benin $13,580,000,000 139 1.00% 129 $135,800,000
Mongolia $9,360,000,000 150 1.40% 112 $131,040,000
Niger $10,070,000,000 148 1.30% 117 $130,910,000
Tanzania $57,610,000,000 85 0.20% 171 $115,220,000
Guinea $10,140,000,000 146 1.10% 128 $111,540,000
Sierra Leone $4,507,000,000 163 2.30% 66 $103,661,000
Nicaragua $16,620,000,000 131 0.60% 159 $99,720,000
Maldives $1,683,000,000 190 5.50% 13 $92,565,000
Togo $5,653,000,000 157 1.60% 97 $90,448,000
Guyana $4,873,000,000 160 1.80% 83 $87,714,000
Lesotho $3,151,000,000 175 2.60% 56 $81,926,000
Montenegro $6,590,000,000 152 0.00% IISS $80,000,000
Eritrea $3,958,000,000 168 2.00% 74 $79,160,000
Trinidad and Tobago $26,150,000,000 111 0.30% 170 $78,450,000
Djibouti $1,974,000,000 185 3.80% 31 $75,012,000
Laos $14,200,000,000 135 0.50% 163 $71,000,000
Fiji $3,670,000,000 169 1.90% 81 $69,730,000
Malta $9,866,000,000 149 0.70% 154 $69,062,000
Aruba $2,258,000,000 182 3.00% 43 $67,740,000
Bahamas, The $8,791,000,000 151 0.00% IISS $55,000,000
Guinea-Bissau $1,712,000,000 189 3.10% 40 $53,072,000
Somalia $5,665,000,000 156 0.90% 143 $50,985,000
Kosovo $5,300,000,000 158 0.00% $50,000,000
Mauritius $16,630,000,000 130 0.30% 169 $49,890,000
Barbados $6,148,000,000 154 0.80% 152 $49,184,000
Haiti $11,970,000,000 144 0.40% 167 $47,880,000
Solomon Islands $1,494,000,000 195 3.00% 45 $44,820,000
El Salvador $42,820,000,000 93 0.10% 173 $42,820,000
Moldova $10,130,000,000 147 0.40% 168 $40,520,000
Seychelles $1,816,000,000 186 2.00% 72 $36,320,000
Belize $2,575,000,000 181 1.40% 106 $36,050,000
Bhutan $3,252,000,000 171 1.00% 135 $32,520,000
Central African Rep $3,295,000,000 170 0.90% 136 $29,655,000
Gambia, The $3,196,000,000 173 0.90% 139 $28,764,000
Suriname $4,563,000,000 162 0.60% 158 $27,378,000
Comoros $764,800,000 208 2.80% 50 $21,414,400
Liberia $1,635,000,000 192 1.30% 116 $21,255,000
Timor-Leste $2,740,000,000 179 0.00% $10,000,000
Antigua and Barbud $1,472,000,000 196 0.00% IISS $10,000,000
Cape Verde $1,754,000,000 187 0.50% 165 $8,770,000
Tonga $759,500,000 209 0.90% 142 $6,835,500
Dominica $743,700,000 210 0.70% 155 $5,205,900
Bermuda $4,500,000,000 164 0.10% 172 $4,950,000
Sao Tome and Princi $294,600,000 214 0.80% 148 $2,356,800
Anguilla $175,400,000 218 0.50% 162 $877,000
Iceland $12,090,000,000 142 0.00% 174 $0
Andorra $4,220,000,000 165 0.00% $0
Liechtenstein $4,160,000,000 167 0.00% $0
Saint Lucia $1,743,000,000 188 0.00% $0
San Marino $1,662,000,000 191 0.00% $0
Vanuatu $1,151,000,000 197 0.00% $0
Grenada $1,101,000,000 199 0.00% $0
Saint Vincent and th $1,085,000,000 200 0.00% $0
Samoa $1,007,000,000 201 0.00% $0
Monaco $976,300,000 202 0.00% $0
Kiribati $601,300,000 212 0.00% $0
Holy See / Vatican $355,500,000 NR 0.00% $0
Micronesia, Federat $238,100,000 215 0.00% $0
Palau $164,000,000 219 0.00% $0
Marshall Islands $133,500,000 220 0.00% $0
Nauru $60,000,000 222 0.00% $0
Tuvalu $14,940,000 227 0.00% $0

Personel Aktif Militer: Amerika vs. Rusia vs. Cina

Jumlah rasio militer personel berbanding jumlah populasi Amerika Serikat juga lebih baik daripada Cina, walau secara absolut jumlah militer personil aktif Cina lebih banyak.

Untuk superioritas udara, artileri darat (termasuk tank), dan kekuatan armada laut, Amerika Serikat juga secara umum memiliki keunggulan jumlah (baca: secara kualitas dan efektifitas persenjataan juga lebih baik).

Nah, secara umum hegemoni militer masih dipegang oleh Amerika Serikat baik soal kualitas maupun kuantitas angkatan bersenjata. Ini belum menghitung pengalaman perang militer AS yang hampir selalu terlibat aktif dalam berbagai konflik di dunia.

Satu faktor lain yang juga berperan penting dalam peperangan modern adalah persoalan mobilitas armada tempur. Faktor ini juga masih dipegang mutlak oleh AS lewat kemampuan angkutan perang lintas benua Kapal Induk. Amerika Serikat sampai saat ini memiliki 11 armada Kapal Induk yang sekali daya serangnya setara dengan gempuran skala menengah. Jangan lupa, Amerika Serikat juga didukung oleh 700 hingga 800 pangkalan militer yang tersebar di 63 negara di seluruh dunia. Jelas ini membikin ‘tangan’ Amerika bisa lebih dahulu memukul dibanding kekuatan militer mana pun di dunia.

amerika vs rusia

Suarakan Opini-mu Lewat Pengisian Survey Singkat: Amerika vs. Rusia vs. Cina

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